Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs Adult learning styles presentation some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy.
However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles i. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective.
For centuries, lectures have been the most frequently used method for delivering knowledge in academic teaching. Lectures are used Adult learning styles presentation a variety of situations for teaching theoretical knowledge in medicine, ranging from classrooms for medical students and residents, to symposia, conferences and congresses for continuing medical education.
Lectures have proved to be as effective as other teaching methods for delivering knowledge and information. Despite these challenges lectures are still among the cornerstones of academic teaching.
Many authors have recommended the inclusion of Adult learning styles presentation to make them more effective 161213141516171819202122 — from more active student involvement to variations on the lecture itself. These strategies would allow an evolution from static, passive formats in which students sit for an hour only to listen to what the instructor has to say to more dynamic and interactive formats, allowing more student participation and involvement in their own learning.
An adequate instructional design for combining texts and images in audio-visual aids would also be necessary to make these more effective for learning. This article will present a summary of adult learning principles and how they should guide the design, content and format of lectures.
Additionally, it Adult learning styles presentation offer recommendations for creating organized, relevant, interactive and effective lectures.
Lindeman's pioneer paper inThe Meaning of Adult Educationwhich awakened interest in and set the basis for the systematic research about how adults learn, educators and psychologists have contributed to the development of many varied theories and hypothesis about the learning characteristics of adults.
Taylor and Hamdy summarized the learning theories and classified Adult learning styles presentation in the following categories: As shown by this classification, the theories are numerous. Elements from all of them may be applied to explain how adults learn; although none of Adult learning styles presentation is complete on its own all of them have limitations.
Below we provide some examples on how these theories apply to the preparation and development of lectures. In the s, Malcolm S.
Knowles developed a model to explain the characteristics of learning in adults based in the following assumptions: Adults need to Adult learning styles presentation why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. They need to know how learning will be conducted, what learning will occur and why learning is important. The pedagogical implications of this assumption are that:. Adults have the self-concept of being responsible of their own decisions and their own lives and consequently need to be considered by others as capable of self-direction.
Teachers should help their adult students become self-directed learners: Learners that are able to control, motivate, supervise and adjust their own learning. Adults come to learning situations with accumulated experience; therefore, in any group of adults there is a wide range of individual differences regarding background, learning styles, motivation, needs, interests and goals.
Also, adults tend to develop mental habits, biases and assumptions that usually make them resistant to new ideas and alternative methods of learning.
Adult learning styles presentation discussions, debates, case-based methods, etc. Additionally, constructivist learning theories suggest that new information must connect to previous knowledge in order to be understood, retained and then utilized. Adults are ready to learn what they need to know to cope with Adult learning styles presentation situations they face in their real lives.
This principle supports the relationship between the content to be taught and the learner's developmental stage.
For example, a lecture about phacoemulsification with premium intraocular lenses might not be relevant for first-year residents, although it would be useful for third-year residents.
Adults will be motivated to learn as long as they perceive the learning as useful to help them perform tasks or solve Adult learning styles presentation they face in their lives. They will learn more effectively when new knowledge, skills, attitudes and values are presented in the context of their application to real life situations.
This concept implies that the content of lectures should be relevant to what learners need to cope with in their daily practice. The instructor's experience on the subject matter presented through personal stories or cases adds to the relevance that the audience may find in the content.