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Post menopausal skin changes

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Porn archive Post menopausal skin changes.

Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life Post menopausal skin changes, women passing through this Post menopausal skin changes is rising.

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The life expectancy in India has been increasing, according to WHO health statistics in Post menopausal skin changes, an average female life expectancy is 68 years and is projected to increase up to 73 years by The estimated mean age of menopause is 46 years in India which is lower than Caucasians.

Premature menopause can occur due to surgery, irradiation, viral infection, e.

There are many factors that influence menopausal age including[ 7 ] heredity age of mothers menopausesmoking, parity, socioeconomic factors, exposure to various toxins, and nutrition. Menopause syndrome due to estrogen deficiency can be classified as physical or psychological. Physical symptoms include vasomotor symptoms such as hot flushes and night sweats, urogenital symptoms, palpitations, headaches, bone and joint pain, asthenia, tiredness, disturbed sleep or insomnia, breast tenderness, and skin aging.

Psychological symptoms includes Post menopausal skin changes, memory loss, irritability, poor concentration, tiredness, depressed mood, mood swings, loss of libido, anxiety, and loss of confidence.

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A multitude of factors, including lifestyle and role, body image, interpersonal relationships, and sociocultural status, can influence a woman's attitude toward the menopause and impact on her perception of symptom severity. The abundance of estrogen receptors in both dermis and epidermis and to a lesser extent progesterone receptor shows that skin Post menopausal skin changes significantly affected during menopause.

Dermatosis associated with menopause can classified as: Breast glandular tissue decreases with increased fibrous tissue. Uterus becomes small, and muscles are partly replaced by fibrous tissue. Vagina becomes narrower and shorter, vaginal and vulvar epithelium atrophies, and pH of vagina increases with increased chances of infection.

External genitalia atrophies with loss of vulval subcutaneous fat. Epithelium of lower urinary tract atrophies, leading to increased tendency to prolapse and chances of urinary tract Post menopausal skin changes. Loss of elasticity in Pelvic supporting ligaments contributes to prolapse and urinary incontinence.

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Glands atrophies with decreased sebum and sweat production leading to dryness of skin. Melanocytes and langerhans cells decrease. Body weight increases, with fat being mainly deposited in the abdominal region with an increase in the waist-to-hip circumference ratio, thus change from the gynecoid to the android body shape.

Extrinsic cutaneous aging is a type of premature skin aging occurs by exposing the skin to harmful environmental factors such as poor nutrition, smoking, sun exposure, and large alcohol intake. Atrophy of dermis occurs with decreased collagen, Post menopausal skin changes, mast cells, and blood vessels. Skin wrinkles become translucent, dry, flaky, and fragile, making it more prone to trauma, bleeding, and infection.

Menopause brings changes in collagen metabolism. Postmenopausal period is marked by low amounts of soluble collagen, slow turnover, and collagen synthesis resulting in decreased Post menopausal skin changes resilience and pliability. Some dermatoses are seen in senile age group, which may not be specifically related with hormonal changes [ Table 2 ]. The skin becomes rapidly thinner after menopause at a rate similar to the decrease in bone mass.

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The reduction in thickness can not only be attributed to age alone but also to the decrease of skin collagen. Thickness of the skin decreases by 1. Skin is a cellular repository of iron that menopause increases iron in skin, which may contribute to the manifestation of accelerated skin aging and photo aging after menopause. Estrogen is essential for normal female sexual development and for the healthy functioning of the reproductive system.

Estrogens are also formed in the placenta during pregnancy.

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In a normal adult human women, three different natural estrogens predominates: At menopause, the ovaries are atrophied, hence stop producing estrogen, and other sources continue to produce estrogen but in smaller quantities. Obese women may suffer less from menopause-related problems, related to estrogen depletion, as the androgens are converted to estrogen in fat cells.

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Estrogen receptors are most abundant around genital areas, face, and lower limbs. So skin conditions involving these areas are more commonly affected Post menopausal skin changes peri- and postmenopausal women. A common intermediate complication of menopause is organ atrophy. Vaginal atrophy is due to thinning of vagina and vestibule. It often presents with vaginal dryness and burning, tenderness, pruritus, and dyspareunia.

Urogenital atrophy occurs from rapid loss of collagen as Post menopausal skin changes result of estrogen deficiency presenting with urgency, frequency, dysuria, painful urination, and incontinence.

Females are more commonly affected with Patient may be completely asymptomatic or presents with intractable pruritus at night, irritation, painful intercourse, dysuria, urethral and vaginal discharge, dyspareunia, urinary and fecal incontinence, painful skin fissuring, pruritus vulvae, or sore vulvodynia.

It presents with white atrophic polygonal, flat topped papules coalescing into plaques and extending into vulva and perianal skin in figure of eight configuration. Thickening of skin of vulva, perineum, labia majora, labia minora, fourchette, and clitoris may be seen. Post menopausal skin changes clitoris disappears, labia shrink, and entrance to vagina tightens.

It may present like cigarette paper with wrinkled surface and waxy thickened or fragile skin, bruises, blisters, purpura, telengectasia, erosion, or ulcers.

It never affects inside vagina and cervix as it spares mucosa. Skin around anus may be involved which aggravate the tendency of constipation as there is increased chances of genito-urinary infections.

LSA can affect sites like inner thigh, buttocks, under breast, neck shoulders, and armpits. It may follow or coexist with lichen simplex, genital warts, candidiasis, and erosive lichen planus.

It needs to be differentiated from lichen planus, vitiligo, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasm, and extra mammillary pagets disease.

Histopathology — Hyperkeratosis with follicular plugging, atrophy of stratum malphigian with hydropic degeneration of basal cells, pronounced edema Post menopausal skin changes homogenization of collagen, hyalinization with a Post menopausal skin changes like zone of chronic inflammatory cells and absence of elastic fibers is seen in dermis.

It needs to be differentiated from morphea where absence of fibrosis, presence of hydropic degeneration of basal layer and flattening of rete ridges is seen.

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Previously called vestibulodynia,[ 25 ] now referred as generalized vulvodynia is characterized by wide-spread spontaneous pain throughout the vulvar region, labia, clitoris, vestibule, perineum, mons pubis, and inner thighs.

Pain is constant or unprovoked by touch or pressure to the vulva; intercourse, bicycle riding and horse riding may worsen the symptoms. Associated stress-related and chronic pain conditions Post menopausal skin changes headache, pain in face, tongue and mouth, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome fatigue, sleeping and eating disorders are also seen.

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Patient presents with erythema and swelling over vulvae. There are various causes of dyaesthetic vulvodynia [ Table 3 ].


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