Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil.
This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: The guiding question of this study was: The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying.
The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a When did bullying start in history of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention When did bullying start in history restorative practices that involve the community and can be When did bullying start in history to everyday life at school.
Adolescence is a time of intense physical, psychological and relational change. Healthy cognitive, emotional, sexual and psychological development during this period requires a comfortable environment that transmits security, support and protection to the adolescent 1.
Depression and suicide account for a significant portion of the increase in morbidity and mortality among adolescents 3.
Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior When did bullying start in history school aged children 145. Although this term traverses cultural barriers and is used worldwide by researchers and in dictionaries as a proper noun to indicate actions that go beyond aggression or mistreatment, in Portuguese a word that adequately encapsulates its full meaning does not exist 4.
In general terms, bullying is defined as a subcategory of violence and is constituted by aggressive repetitive acts and asymmetrical power relations between peers 46 - 8 that have serious health consequences When did bullying start in history adolescents who, apart from having to lead with intense emotional and physical change, seek acceptance among their peers 19. Dan Olweus 7 does not regard bullying as aggression among peers who have similar physical and emotional characteristics.
Although this type of violence occurs within the general community 89bullying is a health When did bullying start in history around the world and involves interaction between individuals in the same context or environment 4such as school, over a long period of time. Researchers have systemized bullying into two forms: Generally, bullying is barely noticeable to adults since it is subtle 710 Cyberbullying, peer violence in virtual settings, is another type of bullying that has been widely studied 12 This form of bullying has no set location and is more difficult to resolve since it is generally anonymous, open access and spreads at great speed It is believed that bullying is rooted in social, cultural, economic and historical problemas 4.
Victims generally do not react to aggression, When did bullying start in history more insecure, fear rejection and have few friends. Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media 15 - Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil 91419 - In Brazil, severe cases of bullying involving homicide and suicide have made the headlines and have been widely reported by the media.
One such case was the Massacre de Realengo inattributed to an act of revenge for bullying, where an ex-pupil shot and killed 12 children at a school in Rio de Janeiro and then turned the gun on himself Ina youth from Porto Alegre was victim of homicide involving a firearm in a When did bullying start in history case of bullying 23while inin Guarulhos, a girl who was victim of constant bullying was beaten unconscious by another adolescent while others filmed and laughed In other cases of bullying involving legal action, the parents of the bullies have been required to compensate the victim 5.
There is an urgent need to understand and intervene in social problems such as bullying that pose a threat to adolescent health 1.
This integrative review analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: The study used the integrative review method, which consists of summarizing When did bullying start in history organizing the results of empirical or theoretical literature to obtain a wide and deep understanding of a given topic in order to derive insights that may provide the basis for further research 25 This literature review was conducted in the following stages: Given the incipient nature of research related to bullying among adolescents, the guiding question of this study was: The literature search was conducted in August using the following data bases: The following descriptors were used for the respective data bases separated by the Boolean operators and or or: These descriptors were used to refine or widen the search according to the search result.
A time frame was not set in order to obtain unrestricted access to the literature. A reading of the When did bullying start in history and abstracts of the articles obtained from the searches resulted in a total of 69 preselected articles Table 1of which 25 six in English were selected for comprehensive reading using the following inclusion When did bullying start in history The following exclusion criteria were also used: The 25 articles analyzed by this study are presented in chronological order in Chart 1which shows the title, type of study as defined by the authorssample and objective of each study.
Two articles were produced inone intwo inone infive inone in When did bullying start in history, six in andand one in Graph 1 shows the number of articles by type of study.
Fourteen studies are quantitative 11 cross-sectional, with only three When did bullying start in history the use of questionnaires ; three are qualitative two use interviews and one uses participant observation and focus groups ; two are quanti-qualitative both use questionnaires, while one uses free word association and the other uses notes kept in a field journal, interviews and focus groups ; four are bibliographical studies one of which is a When did bullying start in history literature review ; and two are theoretical studies consisting of a critical analysis of the topic.
The main focus of over half of the articles were correlations and factors associated with bullying, and the investigation and determination of prevalence of bullying. After vertical in-depth reading, the 25 articles were organized into the following topics: In article 11, a study conducted with 60, pupils in 26 state capitals and in the Federal District, 5.
Article 21 revealed that This prevalence rate is similar to the findings of article 24, which showed that A study conducted with 5, pupils, showed that The findings of article 22 that studied a sample of 1, pupils showed that The different methods of data collection — type of questionnaires used, different sample characteristics number, When did bullying start in history, gender, etc.
The lowest prevalence of bullying was reported by article According to the authors, this was due to the time frame adopted for the occurrence of bullying one monthwhich was chosen to reduce the risk of bias.
On the other hand, the high percentage of victims The high proportion of victims The game allows players to be bullies or victims and choose to attack or defend monitors, teachers and classmates in a school setting. Although its sale is prohibited Brazil, the game is still sold in the United States and in some shops in the United Kingdom Bullying was more frequent among boys who had been involved in more serious crimes.
However, the study suggests that further research is necessary to understand whether bullying is a precursor or consequence of the offences committed by the adolescents The findings of these studies on bullying in Brazil are similar to those of international studies. Another study conducted in the United States with When did bullying start in history, pupils from public and private schools aged between six and 10 years, revealed that According to article 14, the most common types of bullying bullying and being bullied are verbal: These findings corroborate the results of article 21, which showed that the most common types of bullying suffered by victims were name-calling and gossiping, while the most common type of bullying practiced by bullies was name-calling Article 12 shows that the most prevalent forms of intimidation are verbal and physical, followed by psychological, ethnic and sexual aggression On the other hand, articles 9 and 22 show that physical aggression is most prevalent, followed by verbal abuse 31 Article 8 draws attention to the fact that verbal provocation evolves into physical aggression fighting, hitting, hair-pulling and kicking and often starts within school and ends outside the school gates Peer aggression tends to take place mainly outside the classroom 28 ; however, article 22 shows that after the playground, incidents take place mainly in the classroom According to articles 11, 12 and 22, boys are more likely to be bullied or involved in bullying than girls 2730 Also, bullying among boys tends to involve physical aggression, isolation from the group and coercion, while in girls it is more likely to When did bullying start in history gossip and teasing, which is less noticeable Furthermore, When did bullying start in history are twice as likely to be bullies 31which does not necessarily mean that they are more aggressive, but rather more likely to be involved in bullying Developmental differences between boys and girls may account for such behavior.