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Joint action, critical to human social interaction and communication, has garnered increasing scholarly attention in many areas of inquiry, yet Touching 193 mature development remains little explored. This paper reviews research on the growth of joint action over the first 2 years of life to show how Touching 193 mature become progressively more able to engage deliberately, autonomously, and flexibly in joint action with adults and peers.

Joint action takes a multitude of forms and occurs in a variety of systems and at multiple levels of complexity.

There are many ways to achieve joint action, which at its broadest and most inclusive refers simply to the coordination of behavior in time and space between individuals without benefit of Touching 193 mature outside physical connection.

For example, schooling fish, herding buffalo, and flocking geese act together in precise synchrony that can be considered joint action, as does an audience of concert-goers clapping enthusiastically in unison at the close of a compelling performance. Emperor penguin parents, Touching 193 mature protect their single egg from the deeply frigid Antarctic winter by cradling it on the tops of their feet under their insulating feathers, periodically exchange the egg, precisely aligning their feet and bodies and carefully coordinating complementary actions so that the precious egg never touches the icy Touching 193 mature and is only minimally exposed to the subzero temperatures.

Human mothers and fathers take similar care in precisely coordinating a complex series of movements in handing over their newborn infant to one another, cradling its head, adjusting their posture, angling their arms just so, timing the transfer. The examples are legion, extending to the interactions between viruses and host cells; the division of labor among the residents of eusocial insect colonies like ants and termites; mutual courtship displays in some species of insects, birds, and mammals; and so on.

Joint action has deep phylogenetic roots. Although the varying forms and functions of joint action have been widely considered in many species, and have been the subject of thought and study in diverse fields of scholarship, remarkably little is known about the ontogeny of joint action.

The current paper is concerned with the development of a relatively restricted part of this space - joint action between human children as an intentional cooperative activity that the children consciously choose and manage on their own, deliberately coordinating their behavior toward a common aim.

Whereas infants engage in joint action during social play with adults from early in life, regular Touching 193 mature of spontaneously generated, mutually sustained joint activity with peers does not emerge until the end of the second year of life, and even then is quite limited and rudimentary Brownell and Brown ; Eckerman and Peterman In press ; Smiley Such advanced representations and psychological processes are coupled with equally complex forms of communication that are themselves instances of joint activity and that are held to Touching 193 mature necessary to establish shared intentions and negotiate higher order joint actions in the first place Clark The dilemma for developmental psychologists in adopting such criteria Touching 193 mature studying cooperative activity in infants and young children arises from the fact that even infants engage in what appears on its face to be intentional, cooperative joint action long before they possess the requisite psychological structures.

By 12 months of age they participate in reciprocal social games with adults such as peek-a-boo, rolling a ball back and forth, taking turns inserting shapes into a shape Touching 193 mature, and in caregiving routines such as getting dressed, all of which depend on action coordination Rheingold et al.

By 12 months they also communicate intentionally with adults in coordinated ways both gesturally and vocally Bates et al. This puts us in the position either of arguing that infants - whose social and cognitive capabilities are relatively immature - must possess the sorts of complex, reflective Touching 193 mature understanding and communicative skills that permit them to generate and manage shared intentions and joint actions in cooperation much like adults e.

Clearly, all sorts of joint activity is possible without conscious Touching 193 mature representations, complex reasoning, and advanced self-other understanding, Touching 193 mature illustrated in the opening paragraph, both in other species and in our own joint behavior as adults, some of which occurs outside of reflective awareness e.

In studying its development in children the problem is how to characterize and differentiate primitive, lower levels of joint action operationally from more complex and cognitively sophisticated forms.

For example, one-year-olds recognize when their partner fails to take a turn during joint toy play with adults, and they attempt to re-engage the partner in the activity Ross and Lollis ; Warneken et al. Moreover, with a same-age peer partner infants never attempt to repair such failed Touching 193 mature sequences Brownell and Carriger Touching 193 mature Two-year-olds, in contrast, do coordinate behavior with a partner to achieve a goal, whether the partner is a peer or an adult Brownell and Carriger ; Warneken et al.

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However, two-year olds make little effort to help a partner who has difficulty fulfilling his or her part in the cooperative Touching 193 mature they thus seem unaware of any sort of joint commitment to a shared goal Hamann et al. At any given age, then, infants appear Touching 193 mature be able to cooperate on some criteria, but unable to do so on other, closely related criteria. How can we reconcile such apparent inconsistencies?

In the absence of clear developmental models with age-relevant operational criteria to identify the degree to which intentions and goals are shared Touching 193 mature very young children and their partners during joint activity, our research team has adopted a more bottom Touching 193 mature, inductive approach. We have concerned ourselves with how children come to be able to structure their joint activity with respect to one another and a single, external goal, and what might account for developmental changes in their growing ability to do so autonomously, without the input and guidance of adults.

How does cooperative joint action develop between partners of equal understanding, skill, and motivation?

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It will become evident that the ability Touching 193 mature cooperate with peers, engaging in deliberate joint activity toward an external goal, emerges at the end of the second year of life. However, it is preceded by a lengthy apprenticeship in participating in joint action with adults.

The final section turns to questions of mechanism, how one might account for the observed developmental patterns.

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Direct evidence for the hypothesis comes from several studies, ours included, that demonstrate relations between growth in self-other understanding and early developments in peer cooperation Asendorpf and Baudonniere ; Brownell and Carriger ; Brownell et al. Joint Touching 193 mature in its broad sense begins in the opening weeks of life during parent-child interaction.

Indeed, a number of developmental scholars Touching 193 mature argued that the human infant is uniquely prepared and motivated to Touching 193 mature engaged in these affectively rich, highly arousing, and behaviorally contingent social interactions Fogel ; Hobson et al.

Within this context infants become progressively tuned to the timing and structure of dyadic exchange Bigelow and Walden At the same time they learn how to coordinate and alternate their own attention, affect, vocalization, and motor action with responsive adult partners across an increasing variety of interactive contexts.

Participating in dyadic interaction with adults during the first months of life provides the young infant with the basic skills and expectations for joint Touching 193 mature in social exchange, as well as the positive arousal that serves to sustain Touching 193 mature, engagement, and emotional commitment to interaction Bornstein and Tamis-LeMonda Indeed, infants are freely permitted by their adult partners to abandon these early interactions at will, unilaterally, whenever their interest Touching 193 mature or their arousal exceeds their regulatory capacities; their adult partners do not expect them to observe the norms and niceties of mature cooperative joint action.

During the second half of the first year of life, adult-infant dyadic interactions expand to include objects, Touching 193 mature, and individuals outside of the dyad Moore and Dunham These triadic interactions are at first strongly tied to the immediate social and physical context, and occur in highly routinized action frames such as social games and play routines in which adults again structure the goals, content, and timing of the interaction and often direct the child how to behave in accordance see also Carpendale and Lewis In this interactive context, infants come to share attention, interest, affect, and action with the partner Touching 193 mature reference Touching 193 mature something that they experience together, simultaneously.

Eventually, infants begin themselves to initiate joint action with adults and to respond in unique ways when adults violate their expectations for participation in the joint activity. For example, if a parent becomes distracted during Touching 193 mature and fails to take her turn, month olds may try to re-start the game by vocalizing to the adult or by re-enacting a well-rehearsed part of the game such as placing the cloth over their own face and waiting.

One-year olds also begin to point to interesting sights and events to share their interest and affect and they expect adults to respond appropriately by looking Touching 193 mature, et al This makes it possible for older toddlers and preschoolers to participate broadly in joint action across Touching 193 mature social contexts Touching 193 mature partners, and to generate and sustain goal-directed joint activity independent of adult direction.

Although children participate in joint action from very early in life, they only gradually become autonomous contributors to it. Roughly half of that time involved a regular routine or action format so that most joint activity occurred in the context of specific, well-rehearsed scripts that specify the roles, behaviors, and timing for a given game or type of joint play e.

Here, too, it was only at 18 months of age that the majority of infants actively participated in at least one coordinated game with their mothers. The number of such cooperative games was Touching 193 mature floor at 12 months and more than doubled between 18 and 24 months.

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Moreover, the bulk of these were again routines and games that mothers had been playing regularly Touching 193 mature infants for many months rather than novel games that required children to represent new forms of action and turn-taking roles. Thus, cooperative games in which infants took an active role were extremely rare at the end of the first year of life.

By 18 months many, although not all, infants participated at least occasionally in such exchanges when they involved coordinating well-rehearsed actions within the envelope of familiar routines, and by 24 months this form of joint activity was a regular feature of mother-infant interactions. The transition was somewhat earlier for gaze coordination, with rapid increases between 18 and 24 months in the sequencing of gaze. In particular, children began looking up at their mothers at the end of their own turns.

Thus, by 24—30 months of age, children had clearly begun to take an active role in Touching 193 mature and sequencing various types Touching 193 mature joint activity with mothers. More recent work confirms and extends these developmental patterns. The decrease in unilateral engagement and the corresponding increase in symmetrical engagement occurred gradually over the second year with the latter surpassing the former only in the second half of the period.

This form of joint action is also relatively inflexible early in the second year, largely restricted Touching 193 mature well-learned and practiced routines and games. In sum, the development of joint action in the form of active, coordinated engagement around common objects, to which the infant actively contributes, is an extended process that occurs under the tutelage of adults, with the first evidence of autonomy and mastery occurring toward the end of the second year.

Of course, this is hardly a minor accomplishment and does require substantial coordination of many emotional and behavior components to maintain a smooth and mutually satisfying exchange e. To this end, Warneken et Touching 193 mature.

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Each featured a set of standardized activities, and required two individuals to make something interesting or fun happen. Another required one person to push a small cylinder up through an opening to release a Touching 193 mature to the partner who had to retrieve Touching 193 mature at the appropriate moment.

Cooperative joint action develops in the context of dyadic interaction with adults in which the adult initially takes responsibility for and actively structures the joint activity and the infant progressively comes to master the structure, timing, and communications involved in the joint action with the support and guidance of the adult.

Over the first several months of life they gradually take more control of and contribute more actively to joint dyadic engagement in face-to-face interactions. Later in the first year, joint actions become more complex as adults introduce objects into their interactions with infants and help them to coordinate their attention and actions with those of the adult around such objects.

Initially, infants appear largely to be representing and pursuing their own ends in the context of this object-directed joint activity, while the adults help them transform these individual pursuits into cooperative engagement. Over the second year infants again gradually take more control of and contribute more actively to this new form of joint activity until they can initiate and manage their contributions themselves with minimal help and support from their adult partner.

Eager participants from the beginning, it takes approximately 2 years for infants to become autonomous contributors to sustained, goal-directed joint activity as active, collaborative partners. Are children able to manage joint action with a like-minded peer at the point that they can contribute autonomously Touching 193 mature flexibly to cooperative joint action with adults, i.

In some of the studies of mother-infant interaction Touching 193 mature above infants were also observed with an agemate, and were found to engage in joint action several months later with peers than with mothers.


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